Posts Tagged ‘india defence’

Role Attack helicopter
National origin India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
First flight 16 August 2007
Introduction 2012
Status Approved for induction
Primary users Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Indian Navy
Developed from HAL Dhruv

The HAL Rudra (Devanagari: रुद्र, “The God Of The Tempest”) aka ALH-WSI is an armed version of HAL Dhruv. Rudra is equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red and Thermal Imaging Sights Interface, a 20 mm turret gun, 70 mm rocket pods, Anti-tank guided missiles and Air-to-Air Missiles.


The version is equipped with SAAB supplied Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS) with Electronic Warfare self-protection which is fully integrated into the modern glass cockpit.

ALH-WSI has undergone integration trial for armament and electro-optical systems.

A final round of weapon firing trials is scheduled in September 2011, starting with its 20-mm turret gun, followed by trials of its 70mm rockets and MBDA Mistral air-to-air missiles in November.

Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) is expected by late 2012 with deliveries of the production helicopters starting on or before 2013.

As per the initial orders, close to 70 Rudras are to be supplied to Indian armed forces. “It has comfortably-exceeded the payload and performance requirements at 6 km height. It has integrated sensors, weapons and electronic warfare suite using an upgraded version of the glass cockpit used in the Mk-III. The cockpit avionics is a state-of-the-art technology when it comes to helicopters. The sensors include stabilised day and night cameras, Infra-Red imaging, as well as laser ranging and designation,” sources said.

HAL Rudra can carry self defence systems including radar & missile detectors, IR jammer, chaff & flare dispensers.


Unarmed roles

  • Heliborne assault
  • Logistic support
  • Reconnaissance
  • Air observation post
  • Casuality evacuation
  • Training

Armed roles

  • Anti-tank warfare (ATW)
  • Close air support
  • Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
  • Anti-Surface Vessel (ASV)


Rudra, or ALH-WSI (Weapon Systems Integrated) has two main versions.

  1. Mark III
    This has Electronic Warfare, countermeasures, sensors and targeting systems installed, but does not feature weapons.[5][6]
  2. Mark IV
    This would have a French Nexter 20 mm turret gun, Belgian 70 mm rockets, and MBDA air to air and air to ground missiles, such as the anti-tank Helina missile.

All these systems have been tested individually.

           Nibhay Cruise Missile.png
Type Long-range, all-weather, subsoniccruise missile
Place of origin  India
Service history
Used by Indian Navy
Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Production history
Manufacturer DRDO
Produced Expected in 2012
Weight 1,000 kg
Length 6 m
Diameter 0.52 m

1,000 km
Speed 0.8 mach


The missile will have a range of 1,000 km. The Nirbhay will be able to be launched from multiple platforms on land, sea and air. The missile is able to carry 24 different types of warheads and will be inducted into Indian Navy, Army, and Air Force. In particular, Nirbhay will be adapted for Russian-made fighters Su-30MKI.

It was reported in May 2010 that the missile will be capable of carrying nuclear warheads. A DRDO official told The Hindu in March 2012 that the Nirbhay will be able to pick out a target and attack it among multiple targets. He also mentioned it to be a two stage missile. The missile will also have a loitering capability i.e it can go round a target and perform several manoeuvres and then take it apart.


The missile is being developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment, a division of DRDO and after finalizing the design, the technology required for the missile is being developed. The first test flight of the missile is expected in the year 2012. It’s likely to be test-fired in August, 2012. Nirbhay will be a terrain hugging, stealth missile capable of delivering 24 different types of warheads depending on mission requirements and will use an inertial navigation system for guidance. Nirbhay will supplement Brahmos in the sense that it would enable delivery of warheads farther than the 290 km range of Brahmos.


DRDO rather than starting all over again the Arjun Mk.2 will have the same design of Arjun Mk.1, but major changes are planned for the new generation variant of Arjun Tank to keep up with the new technological changes which are been incorporated in the MBT’s world over.

Arjun Mk.2 will have Battle Field Management System (BFMS) which will enable the tank to get feed from UAV‘s and Helicopters, which then enable the Arjun Mk.2 tank crew much aware of their surroundings and better understanding of the battle zone, this will lead to improvement in coordinating with other Friendly tanks in the zone and also avoid Friendly kills, it will also give information regarding enemy tank movement along with their troops and help navigate terrain in the battle zone.

Self-diagnostic system (SDS) will also be added to Arjun Mk.2 which is like a health monitoring system. it will not only tell the tank crew if it is having any problem but also point out the trouble area , it is also important when Tank has taken multiple hits from different position and from different ammunition after a self-diagnose Tank crew will know exact damage inflicted on the Tank .

Arjun Mk.2 will get a new efficient 1500bhp engine which has been in development by DRDO in India its self, they are reports that a Indian Private industry is also working with DRDO on the engine development, currently Arjun Mk.1 is powered by German supplied 1400bhp engine which is quite old in design and technical parameters but still a powerful and respected engine in the world.

NERA (non-explosive reactive armor) will be added to Arjun Mk.2 this will give the tank additional protection against anti-tank munitions, unlike ERA, NERA will enable tank to take multiple hits anti-tank munitions, but also increase the weight of Arjun Mk.2 to 60 tons from its current weight (Arjun Mk.1) of 58 tons.

It is much likely that Arjun Mk.2 will also spot Air-conditioning system for the crew, which will be powered from an APU which will draw its power from the Main engine of the Tank; this will enable the tank crew to operate in higher temperature of desert heat without any discomfort to the tank crew, Arjun Mk.1 already has hardened electronics that function perfectly even in the Rajasthan summer without requiring any Air-conditioning system

The Arjun Mk.2 is to undergo summer and winter trails in 2012. If the tests are satisfactory, then the tank will be able to begin production in 2014.

Weight: 60 tons
Length: 10.638 meters
Width: 3.864 meters
Height: 2.32 meters
Crew: 4 (commander, gunner, loader and driver)

Armor: steel/composite Kanchan armour and NERA
Primary weapon: 120 mm rifled tank gun
Secondary weapon: HCB 12.7 mm AA MG, Mag 7.62 mm Tk715 coaxial MG
Engine: DRDO 1,500hp
Power/weight: 25 hp/ton
Operational range: 435 kilometers
Speed: 75 km/h (45 mph) Road, 42 km/h (25 mph) Cross country

Cost: $13 million est.


The Indian Army wants the tank to have an Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system “to obviate chances of own tanks firing at each other in battle”, and a whole new reliable and secure mobile communication system capable of data transmission, audio and video conference. Protection in the form of soft-kill system requires IR detectors, laser warning, radar warning and devices to instantaneously integrate these signals and control a countermeasure suite. Such systems are threat specific so all would have to be carried on a vehicle to gain protection against more than one part of the EM threat spectrum.

For mobility, in order to achieve ‘extraordinary’ acceleration, the Army observes that it is necessary to seek a compact power pack in the form of a gas turbine. The Army wants an active suspension system with sensors, control units, and a hydraulic power source in combination, to automatically alter the suspension characteristics to more closely match the speed of the vehicle and the terrain profile, especially in Indian terrain conditions.

The Army says it wants a high-performance armour system on its FMBT with advanced materials incorporating the following qualities A. Reduced penetration by most lethal weapons, B. Elimination of parasitic mass leading to a weight reduction, C. Excellent corrosion resistance, D. Inherent thermal and acoustic insulation properties.

Type: Ballistic missile submarine
Displacement: 6,000 tons
Length: 112 m (367 ft)
Beam: 15 m (49 ft) (Est.)
Draft: 10 m (33 ft) (Est.)
Propulsion: 83MW PWR using 40% enricheduranium fuel; 1 turbine (47,000hp/70MW); 1 shaft; 1 7-bladed, high-skew propeller
Speed: 12–15 knots (22–28 km/h) (surfaced); 24 knots (44 km/h) (submerged)
Range: unlimited except by food supplies
Test depth: 300 m (980 ft) (est)
Complement: 95
Sensors and
processing systems:
Armament: Torpedoes: 6 x 21″ (533mm) torpedo tubes – est. 30 charges (torpedoes, missiles or mines)
4 launch tubes (2.4 meter dia each)

  • 12 x K15 SLBM (3 in each launch tube) or
  • 4 x K-4 SLBM (Under development)

arihant class submarine

The Arihant class submarines (Sanskrit: अरिहंत:, meaning “Slayer of Enemies”) are nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines under development by the Indian Navy. The lead vessel of the class, INS Arihant, is expected to complete its harbour acceptance trials in February 2012. Four vessels of the class are under development and expected to be in commission by 2015.

The Arihant class vessels are India’s first indigenously designed and built nuclear submarine. They were developed under the US$2.9 billion Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project to design and build nuclear-powered submarines.

The Indian Navy’s Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) Project to design and construct a nuclear submarine took shape in the 1990s. First confirmation of the project came in 1998 from then Defence Minister, George Fernandes. The initial intent of the project was to design nuclear-powered fast attack submarines, though following Pokhran-II and Indian pledge of no first use, the project was re-aligned towards the design of a ballistic missile submarine in order to complete India’s nuclear triad.

The ATV project overcame many challenges, the primary one being the design and miniaturization of the nuclear reactor. The lead vessel was first floated from its dry dock at a symbolic launch ceremony on 26 July 2009.

The Arihant class submarines are powered by an 83 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) with highly enriched uranium fuel. The miniaturized naval-version of the reactor was designed and built by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) in Kalpakkam. A land-based prototype of the marine PWR was first built at Kalpakkam. It included a 42-meter section of the submarine’s pressure hull containing the shielding tank with water and the reactor, a control room, as well as an auxiliary control room for monitoring safety parameters. The prototype reactor became critical on 11 November 2003 and was declared operational on 22 September 2006. Successful operation of the prototype for three years yielded the data and the confidence that enabled the production version of the reactor for Arihant.

Separately, infrastructure for testing the reactor subsystems was setup at the Machinery Test Centre in Visakhapatnam. Facilities for loading and replacing the fuel cores of the naval reactors in berthed submarines were also established at the Ship Building Centre.

The hulls for this class were built by Larsen and Toubro at their Hazira shipbuilding facility. Tata Power SED built the control systems for the submarine. The steam turbines and associated systems integrated with the PWR were supplied by Walchandnagar Industries.

The lead vessel underwent a long and extensive process of testing after its “launch” in July 2009. Every sub-system of the propulsion and power systems on board the submarine was repeatedly tested with high-pressure steam trials of all pipelines. Finally, the reactor on board INS Arihant went critical in 2011 when the control rods in the reactor were gradually removed. This was followed by harbour-acceptance trials that included submersion tests by flooding its ballast tanks and controlled dives to limited depths. The sea-acceptance trials are expected to begin in February 2011. This will include operation at different speeds and different depths, before the final weapons acceptance trials, consisting of test-firing of all her SLBMs and torpedoes. Data gathered from her acceptance trials is expected to aid the development of nuclear submarines to follow. INS Arihant is expected to be ready for operational deployment by the end of 2012.

Three more submarines of her class were under construction, as of January 2012. India has decided to construct two more nuclear powered Arihant class submarines.

Name: Project 17A
Builders: GRSE
Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:  Indian Navy
Preceded by: P-17 Shivalik class
Cost: Rs. 4000 crore each
US $900 million each
Planned: 7
Type: stealth frigate

PROJECT 17-A                                                                      The Project 17A is the follow on the Project 17 (Shivalik class) frigates for the Indian Navy. A total of seven ships will be built. The ships will be built at Mazagon Dock Limited and at GRSE. The Indian shipyards would start the construction of the The Project 17A is the follow on the Project 17 (Shivalik class) frigates for the Indian Navy. A total of seven ships will be built. The ships will be built at Mazagon Dock Limited and at GRSE. The Indian shipyards would start the construction of the first ship by 2011 after the process of upgradation of the shipyards are completed. The shipyards are being upgraded to incorporate modular construction technique. The anticipated cost for each vessel is above Rs 4,000 crore (approximately US $900 million) and the total deal is expected to be worth more than Rs 45,000 crore (US $10+ billion). The vessel will incorporate the latest indigenous developed stealth features. The first ship is expected to roll out by 2015. Lockheed Martin and Hyundai Heavy Industries have jointly responded to the Project 17A combat systems Request for Information (RFI) issued by Indian Navy. They are offering the Aegis Combat System to be included in its Project 17A frigate proposalfirst ship by 2011 after the process of upgradation of the shipyards are completed. The shipyards are being upgraded to incorporate modular construction technique.

The anticipated cost for each vessel is above Rs 4,000 crore (approximately US $900 million) and the total deal is expected to be worth more than Rs 45,000 crore (US $10+ billion). The vessel will incorporate the latest indigenous developed stealth features. The first ship is expected to roll out by 2015.
Lockheed Martin and Hyundai Heavy Industries have jointly responded to the Project 17A combat systems Request for Information (RFI) issued by Indian Navy. They are offering the Aegis Combat System to be included in its Project 17A frigate proposal.


The design of P-17 has led to creating a wealth of experience which will be applied to the P17A. The P17A frigates will be improve upon the P17 Shivalik class frigates in terms of stealth. It will have covered mooring deck and flush deck mounted (VLM) weapon systems. The number of antennae on the ship will be reduced by using a multifunctional radar. The P17A will also feature better options for roll stabilization. Build times will be cut down and productivity improved through the use of modular integrated construction.

           @india defence


Agni 6 is an intercontinental ballistic missile being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the use of the Indian Defence Forces.


Agni-VI is an intercontinental ballistic missile speculated to be in very rudimentary stages of development by India. It is said to be the latest and most advanced version among the Agni missiles. Capable of being launched from submarines or from land, it will be able to strike a target at a distance of 6000–10000 km with MIRVed warheads.

Opacity regarding the development

Range comparison of Agni missiles

Till 2009, it was reported that the Government of India had not considered the development of an ICBM with a range of 10,000 km or above. Speculations of an ongoing program for a longer range ICBM resurfaced in 2011. Some reports claimed that the ICBM is already named “Surya” and code named AGNI-VI.

Other reports suggest that New Delhi has not given serious weight to the necessity for an ICBM. DRDO can take up a project to develop India’s ICBM only after permission from the government of India. Since India is not a signatory to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), the Indian missile program is not limited by any treaty commitment to cap the development of ICBM capability. Some media reports have occasionally suggested that, despite India being a non-signatory to MTCR, there is a voluntary moratorium on developing missiles beyond the range of 5,000 km.

DRDO Newsletter

The existence of an ICBM program is still unclear and has never been officially acknowledged by the DRDO. However, in the DRDO newsletter of May 2011, while describing the achievements of a recently promoted scientist, it revealed that he headed a program code named A6, which will be an ICBM with a range in between 6,000-10,000 km and like some versions of its precursor Agni V, it will be capable of underwater launch with MIRV.

The letter read,

Chief Controller R&D (Missiles and Strategic Systems)Shri Avinash Chander, Distinguished Scientist, Programme Director, SFD and Director, Advanced Systems Laboratory has been appointed as Chief Controller R&D (Missiles and Strategic Systems) wef 3 May 2011. He is an eminent scientist in the field of Missiles and is the Chief Designer of Long-range missile system, with specific contribution in Agni programme management, mission design, guidance, navigation, simulation and terminal guidance. He has unique achievement of delivering and deploying three long-range Agni missile weapon systems viz, A1, A2 and A3.Presently, he is leading three major system developments; A2p, a technologically challenging state-of-the-art system; a 5,000 km canister-launched A5 system; and a 6000 km A6 system with multiple warheads (MIRV) capable of launching both from the ground and underwater

Indian Air Marshal’s allusion to a longer range ICBM

In June 2011, for the very first time then IAF’S Chief Marshal P.V. Naik vehemently argued in favour of broadening India’s nuclear strike capabilities beyond the immediate neighbourhood.

Naik, who heads the chiefs of staff committee, stated:

India should pursue an ICBM programme to acquire ranges of 10,000 km or even more. Breaking out of the regional context is important as the country’s sphere of influence grows. We have no territorial designs on any country, but India needs the capability to match its sphere of influence.

The air chief believes that an ICBM is within India’s grasp:

There’s no point capping the missile programme at 5,000 km. If we have the technical capability, we should build on it.

Confirmation of programme

On 20 June 2011 Indian Defence News published an article titled “India Serious About 10,000 km ICBM” which stated that India is seriously contemplating to enhance the reach of its strategic missiles and that the Ministry of Defense is considering a DRDO proposal to develop intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capable of hitting targets 10,000 km away. Building an ICBM has international ramifications and India is a nuclear weapon state; the ultimate decision to go ahead with the proposal would be taken by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS).

In April 2012 Saraswat revealed that India had no plan to cap the Agni programme and there will be more missiles in the series.


The SLBM version of missile will arm the Arihant class submarines of the Indian Navy. DRDO revealed in 2012 that it is also in the process of developing another variant of Agni-VI missile. This will be a submarine launched solid fuel missile with a maximum range of 6,000 kilometres and a payload of one tonne.

Questions of capability

In October 2011, a report was published by The Pioneer which raised serious doubts about DRDO’s ability to independently develop the “seeker technology” (guidance technology) eligible forICBMs, that could enable ballistic missiles to traverse long distances in excess of 10,000 km.

The same report also asserted Russia’s willingness to provide India with help in the field of “seeker technology”. In light of this report and the original DRDO newsletter of May 2011, it appears that AGNI-VI will have a strike-range between 6,000 km to over 10,000 km. The authenticity of this report is disputed by at least one foreign newspaper, with the counter-claim that the involvement of Russia is probably inflated out of proportion, because if the report about Russian involvement is true, Russia may be suspected of violating the Missile Technology Control Regime.

In response to the scepticism, a top DRDO scientist firmly asserted that India has almost all the equipments and technology needed to develop ICBMs, “but where the warhead should go or what the range should be will have to be a political call.”

@ India Defence


The HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is a multirole combat helicopter being developed in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for use by the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army.

In 2006, HAL announced its plans to build a LCH. Funds for the design and development of the LCH to meet the requirements of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force were sanctioned in October 2006.
The LCH is a derivative of the HAL Dhruv, which was inducted into the Indian armed forces. Using a successful and proven helicopter as the base platform is expected to conserve the project costs for the LCH, which is pegged at Indian Rupee ₹8.76 billion (US$190.1 million).
The LCH was expected to be ready for the Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) by December 2010 with the Final Operational Clearance (FOC) in 2011. However, the revised timeframes hold that the 5.5-tonne LCH should be ready for induction into IAF by 2012-2013.
The first prototype of LCH completed its first ground run on February 4.HAL has a firm order to deliver 65 LCH to the IAF and 114 to the Army.
HAL has performed the maiden flight of its indigenously designed and developed LCH. The first Technology Demonstrator (TD-1) of the LCH flew the 20 minute flight from HAL’s Helicopter Complex, Bangalore on 29 March 2010. This flight provided an opportunity to carry out low speed, low altitude checks on the systems on-board. The crew reported that the performance of the helicopter and systems was satisfactory.

The LCH incorporates stealth features and crash landing gear for survivability. The LCH will have a narrow fuselage, with two crew stations.

The LCH is being designed to fit into an anti-infantry and anti-armour role and will be able to operate at high altitudes (16,300 feet). HAL hopes to equip the Indian Air Force with about 65 gunships.[6] The helicopter is powered by the HAL/Turbomeca Shakti turboshaft engine. The helicopter will be equipped with helmet-mounted targeting systems, electronic warfare systems and advanced weapons systems.

In 2006, HAL selected the M621 cannon incorporated in a Nexter THL 20 turret for the gun armament of the helicopter, operated by a helmet mounted sight.[7][8] Three prototypes will be built. The second version will be fitted with weaponry before its test flight. The Indian Air Force will be provided with the third prototype for user trials.

The LCH is to have a glass cockpit with multifunction displays, a target acquisition and designation system with FLIR, Laser rangefinder and laser designator. Weapons will be aimed with a helmet mounted sight and there will be an electronic warfare suite with radar warning receiver, laser warning receiver and a missile approach warning system.

The helicopter is be fitted with a data link for network-centric operations facilitating the transfer of mission data to the other airborne platforms and ground stations operating in the network,facilitating force multiplication.

With these features, the LCH is expected to play a major role in air defence against slow moving aerial targets, destruction of enemy air defence operations, escort to special heliborne operations, support of combat search and rescue operations, anti-tank role and scout duties.

The two pilots in the LCH sit one behind the other, compared to side-by-side in the Dhruv. All the flight controls, the hydraulics and the fuel system had to be redesigned for the LCH. The LCH’s many stealth features also necessitated redesigning the fuselage.

Operational history
The LCH TD-1 made its first flight on March 29, 2010. The second flight took place on April 28, 2010 at 15:30 hrs. As per HAL Press release, over 20 Test flights have been conducted to check various flight parameters.The third test flight of the LCH was successfully made on 23 May 2010 and it fulfilled the desired parameters and also paves the way for further testing with weapons. As of 17 December 2010 TD-1 has logged 50 hours of flight. The second prototype which will be weaponized with more sub-systems will be unveiled at Aero India 2011 in February 2011. Two more prototypes are under construction to speed up the process of its induction into the Indian Air Force in the year 2012.

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 15.8 m (51 ft 8 in)
  • Rotor diameter: 13.3 m (43 ft 6 in)
  • Height: 4.7 m (15 ft 4 in)
  • Disc area: 138.9 m² (1,472 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 2,250 kg (5,975 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 3,800 kg (8,405 lb)
  • Useful load: 3,350 kg (7,410 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 5,800 kg (12,825 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × HAL/Turbomeca Shakti turboshaft, 1,067 kW (1,430 shp) each


  • Never exceed speed: 330 km/h (178 knots, 207 mph)
  • Maximum speed: 275 km/h (148 knots, 171 mph)
  • Cruise speed: 260 km/h (140 knots, 161 mph)
  • Range: 700 km (297 nmi, 342 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 6,500 m (21,300 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 12 m/s (2,362 ft/min)
  • Disc loading: 39.59 kg/m² (8.23 lb/ft²)
  • Power/mass: 327 W/kg (0.198 hp/lb)


  • Guns: M621 20 mm cannon on Nexter THL-20 turret
  • Rockets: Unguided rockets
  • Missiles: MBDA air-to-air missiles
    Air-to-surface missiles
    Anti-radiation missiles
    Helina anti-tank missile
  • Bombs: Gravity bombs
    cluster bombs
    grenade launchers                                                                                                                                                               @India Defence