Posts Tagged ‘drdo’

BOEING P-8I NEPTUNE [K65298] 03The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (ALSO modified as neptune for indian navy) (formerly the Multimission Maritime Aircraft or MMA) is a military aircraft currently being developed for the United States Navy (USN). The aircraft is being developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800.

The P-8 is intended to conduct anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and shipping interdiction and to engage in an electronic intelligence (ELINT) role. This will involve carrying torpedoes, depth charges, SLAM-ER anti-ship missiles, and other weapons. It will also be able to drop and monitor sonobuoys. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance unmanned aerial vehicle. The P-8 has also been ordered by the Indian Navy.

Derivatives

Boeing approached the U.S. Air Force in 2010 about replacing the E-8C Joint STARS fleet with a modified version of the P-8 at the same cost Northrop Grumman proposed for re-engining and upgrading the E-8s. The proposed version is named P-8 Airborne Ground Surveillance (AGS) and would integrate an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, and have ground moving target indicator (GMTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capabilities.

The main distinguishing feature of the P-8 AGS is pod-mounted radar, fixed to the lower centerline of the fuselage; the pod is lowered so the engine nacelles do not interrupt the radar’s line of sight. Two aft ventral fins on lower aft provide stability for the aircraft. The P-8 AGS also uses the P-8A’s Raytheon AN/APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar.Boeing has campaigned for a fleet of P-8 AGS aircraft instead of re-engining the E-8s. The Air Force’s Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) of the JSTARS platform began in March 2010 to review options for performing the JSTARS mission. An initial decision on the AOA was expected in September 2011

The P-8 is a militarized version of the 737-800 with 737-900-based wings. The airframe uses a 737-800-based fuselage that is similar to but longer than the 737-700-based C-40 Clipper. The P-8 has a strengthened fuselage and 767-400ER-style raked wingtips, instead of the blended winglets available on 737NG variants. The five operator stations (two Naval Flight Officers plus three enlisted Aviation Warfare Operators/Naval Aircrewman) are mounted in a sideways row, along the port side of the cabin. None of these crew stations have windows. One observer window is located on each side of the forward cabin.

The P-8 features the Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar.[29] The P-8I will feature an international version of the APY-10. A short bomb bay for torpedoes and other stores opens behind the wing. The aircraft also includes six additional body fuel tanks for extended range from Marshall Aerospace; three of the tanks are located in the forward cargo compartment and three in the rear. In-flight refueling is via a receptacle on top of the forward fuselage, just aft of the cockpit.

In U.S. service, the Poseidon will be complemented by the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance UAV system, which will provide continuous surveillance. The system is expected to enter service around 2010. Around 40 UAVs based on the RQ-4 Global Hawk will be used in the program. Because of the cancellation of Lockheed Martin’s Aerial Common Sensorproject, Boeing will propose a signals intelligence variant of the P-8 to service the requirement for the U.S. Navy.

INDIA

In January 2008, Boeing proposed the P-8I, a customized export variant of the P-8A, for the Indian Navy. On 4 January 2009, India’sMinistry of Defence signed an agreement with Boeing for the supply of eight P-8Is at a total cost of US$2.1 billion. These aircraft would replace Indian Navy’s aging Tupolev Tu-142M maritime surveillance turboprops. Each aircraft has an average cost of about US$220 million. The deal makes India the first international customer of the P-8, and also marks Boeing’s first military sale to India. In October 2010, India’s Defence Acquisition Council of the Ministry of Defence approved the purchase of four additional P-8Is. In March 2011, it was reported that India was to order four additional P-8s from Boeing later in the year. India plans to order another 12 P-8Is at a later time.

The Data Link II communications technology for the P-8I was received by Boeing from Bharat Electronics Limited in April 2010. The communications system will enable exchange of tactical data and messages between Indian Navy aircraft, ships and shore establishments. Boeing will install the system during P-8I final assembly. The IFF, system from BEL was also handed over to Boeing for integration with P-8I in December 2010.

Flight testing of P-8Is began in July 2012, with deliveries planned to start in 2013. The first P-8I was handed over to an Indian naval team at the Boeing facility at Seattle on 19 December 2012. The Indian Navy is to fly it to India along with the second and third aircraft after they handed over in May and June of next year.

Indian Navy has 8 P-8I aircraft on order; deliveries began in December 2012.

Specifications (P-8A)boeingp81

General characteristics

  • Crew: Flight: 2; Mission: 7
  • Length: 129 ft 5 in (39.47 m)
  • Wingspan: 123 ft 6 in (37.64 m)
  • Height: 42 ft 1 in (12.83 m)
  • Empty weight: 138,300 lb (62,730 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 189,200 lb (85,820 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × CFM56-7B turbofan, 27,000 lbf (120 kN) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 490 knots (907 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 440 kn (815 km/h)
  • Range: 1,200 nmi (2,222 km) 4 hours on station (Anti-submarine warfare mission)
  • Service ceiling: 41,000 ft (12,496 m)

Armament

  • (5 internal and 6 external) SLAM-ER missiles, Mines and Torpedoes.

Avionics

  • Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar
  • (Advanced Airborne Sensor surface search radar and SIGINT package to be follow on system)

COURTESY ;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_P-8_Poseidon

In January 2007, after several months of intense negotiations, India and Israel signed a US$330 million deal to co-develop an all new generation of the Barak SAM, which was to be known as the Barak II. It has also been called Barak 8. They have worked out an agreement to develop and produce the long-range Barak air defence system for both the Indian and the Israeli militaries. The initial co-development funding is about US$350 million, of which IAI will finance 50 per cent. The venture is a tripartite one, between the DRDO, the Indian Navy, and IAI. The missile is referred to as the LRSAM in Indian Government literature, and will have a range of 70 km (43 mi).

The new missile, which will be based on the original Barak, is expected to feature a more advanced seeker, alongside range extensions (up to 70 km) that will move it closer to medium range naval systems like the RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow or even the SM-2 Standard. The joint development offer was first made by Israel during Indian Navy Chief Admiral Arun Prakash’s visit to Tel Aviv in 2004. Israel successfully tested its improved Barak II missile on July 30, 2009. The radar system provides 360 degree coverage and the missiles can take down an incoming missile as close as 500 meters away from the ship. Each Barak system (missile container, radar, computers and installation) costs about $24 million. In November 2009 Israel signed a $1.1 billion contract to supply an upgraded tactical Barak-8 air defence system to India.

The dual pulse rocket motor for the SAM was developed by DRDO, and the prototypes were supplied to IAI for integration with IAI systems to develop the complete missile.The other variant of the LRSAM will be fielded by the Indian Air Force. Along with the Akash SAM, the LRSAM fills a longer range requirement and both types will complement each other. Each unit of the MR-SAM, would consist of a command and control center, with an acquisition radar, a guidance radar, and 3 launchers with eight missiles each. A 4-year, US$300 million System Design & Development phase to develop unique system elements and an initial tranche of the land-based missiles is estimated. The radars, C2 centers, TEL’s and missiles will be co-developed by Israel and India. In turn, IAI and its Israeli partners have agreed to transfer all relevant technologies and manufacturing capabilities to India allowing India to manufacture the LRSAM systems locally as well as support them.

In May 2010, the Barak-II missile was successfully test fired at an electronic target and met its initial objectives. The second test of the missile is to be held in India later this year. “More than 70 per cent of the content in the missile being developed with Israel would be indigenous.” DRDO chief V. K. Saraswat told The Economic Times.

Development and tests of the long-range anti-air / anti-missile

“In January 2006, India and Israel signed a $350m agreement to co-develop a new generation long-range surface-to-air missile (LR-SAM) for Indian Navy ships.”

Rafael Advanced Defence Systems and Elta Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of IAI, were subcontracted for the Barak-8 joint development programme. Rafael provides missile interceptors, while Elta is responsible for the radar system.

The first test of Barak-8 missile took place in Israel in May 2010. The next test is planned to be conducted in Israel in 2012. The weapon qualification programme will involve eight test firings conducted in Israel and India prior to entry into service.

Components of the missile system, including the four-plane MF-STAR radars and shipboard electronic modules were delivered to India for final assembly.

Naval Barak-8 missiles will be installed on the three Project 15A Kolkata Class guided-missile destroyers under construction at the Mazagon shipyard in India. Delivery of the first frigate is scheduled for 2012, and Barak-8 missiles aboard the frigate are expected to become operational in 2013.

Four Project 15B Kolkata Class destroyers will also be armed with extended range surface-to-air missiles (ER-SAM). The extended-range missile can strike targets within the range of 100km

MF-STAR radar used on the jointly developed naval defence system

The MF-STAR radar will provide mid-course guidance updates for the missile initially after the launch from the ship. MF-STAR is a multifunction surveillance track and guidance radar for modern naval ships.

The radar uses multibeam, pulse Doppler and electronic counter-counter measures (ECCM) techniques to detect fast moving and low-RCS targets, even in complex environments / conditions and jamming environments.

The radar system provides 360° degree coverage and allows interception of incoming missile as close as 500m away from the ship. During the terminal phase, the second motor will be fired and active radar seeker will be activated to home on to the target.

Propulsion of the Israeli / Indian surface-to-air missiles

Propulsion power for the missile will be provided by a dual pulse rocket motor developed by DRDO. The prototypes were delivered to IAI for final assembly, along with other systems to produce the complete missile.

The rocket motor provides high manoeuvrability at target interception range throughout the wide envelope of the missile.

Naval barak

Naval Barak-8 is a long-range anti-air and anti-missile naval defence system being developed jointly by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) of India. Surface-to-air missiles (SAM) can counter attack aircraft, UAVs and incoming anti-ship missiles. The missile is expected to enter service with the Indian Navy in 2013.

In January 2006, India and Israel signed a $350m agreement to co-develop a new generation long-range surface-to-air missile (LR-SAM) for Indian Navy ships.

In April 2009, Israel signed a $1.1bn contract to deliver an upgraded Barak-8 air defence system to India. Deliveries are expected to be concluded by 2017.

Role Attack helicopter
National origin India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
First flight 16 August 2007
Introduction 2012
Status Approved for induction
Primary users Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Indian Navy
Developed from HAL Dhruv

The HAL Rudra (Devanagari: रुद्र, “The God Of The Tempest”) aka ALH-WSI is an armed version of HAL Dhruv. Rudra is equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red and Thermal Imaging Sights Interface, a 20 mm turret gun, 70 mm rocket pods, Anti-tank guided missiles and Air-to-Air Missiles.

Design

The version is equipped with SAAB supplied Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS) with Electronic Warfare self-protection which is fully integrated into the modern glass cockpit.

ALH-WSI has undergone integration trial for armament and electro-optical systems.

A final round of weapon firing trials is scheduled in September 2011, starting with its 20-mm turret gun, followed by trials of its 70mm rockets and MBDA Mistral air-to-air missiles in November.

Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) is expected by late 2012 with deliveries of the production helicopters starting on or before 2013.

As per the initial orders, close to 70 Rudras are to be supplied to Indian armed forces. “It has comfortably-exceeded the payload and performance requirements at 6 km height. It has integrated sensors, weapons and electronic warfare suite using an upgraded version of the glass cockpit used in the Mk-III. The cockpit avionics is a state-of-the-art technology when it comes to helicopters. The sensors include stabilised day and night cameras, Infra-Red imaging, as well as laser ranging and designation,” sources said.

HAL Rudra can carry self defence systems including radar & missile detectors, IR jammer, chaff & flare dispensers.

Role

Unarmed roles

  • Heliborne assault
  • Logistic support
  • Reconnaissance
  • Air observation post
  • Casuality evacuation
  • Training

Armed roles

  • Anti-tank warfare (ATW)
  • Close air support
  • Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
  • Anti-Surface Vessel (ASV)

Variants

Rudra, or ALH-WSI (Weapon Systems Integrated) has two main versions.

  1. Mark III
    This has Electronic Warfare, countermeasures, sensors and targeting systems installed, but does not feature weapons.[5][6]
  2. Mark IV
    This would have a French Nexter 20 mm turret gun, Belgian 70 mm rockets, and MBDA air to air and air to ground missiles, such as the anti-tank Helina missile.

All these systems have been tested individually.

                          A scaled down version of AVATAR undergoing aero-elastic test.
A scaled down version of AVATAR undergoing aero-elastic test.
Function Unmanned reusable spaceplane technology demonstrator
Manufacturer DRDO/ISRO
Country of origin  India
Size
Diameter N/A
Stages 1/2
Capacity
Launch history
Status Under Development
Launch sites Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Total launches 0
First flight TBA

                                             AVATAR (Sanskrit: अवतार) (from “Aerobic Vehicle for Hypersonic Aerospace TrAnspoRtation”) is a single-stage reusablespaceplane capable of horizontal takeoff and landing, being developed by India’s Defense Research and Development Organizationalong with Indian Space Research Organization and other research institutions; it could be used for cheaper military and civiliansatellite launches.

When operational, it is planned to be capable of delivering a payload weighing up to 1,000 kg to low earth orbit. It would be the cheapest way to deliver material to space at about US$67/kg. Each craft is expected to withstand 100 launches.

Concept

The idea is to develop a hyperplane vehicle that can take off from conventional airfields, collect air in the atmosphere on the way up, liquefy it, separate oxygen and store it on board for subsequent flight beyond the atmosphere. The AVATAR RLV was first announced in May 1998 at the Aero India 98 exhibition held at Bangalore. It is planned to be the size of a MiG-25 fighter and would be capable of delivering a 500 kg to 1,000 kg payload to low earth orbit at very low cost for an estimated vehicle life of 100 launches.

AVATAR is proposed to weigh only 25 tonnes in which 60 per cent of mass will be liquid hydrogen fuel. The oxygen required by the vehicle for combustion is collected from the atmosphere, thus reducing the need to carry oxygen during launch. AVATAR is said to be capable of entering into a 100-km orbit in a single stage and launching satellites weighing up to one tonne.

Operation

AVATAR RLV-TSTO

AVATAR would take off horizontally like a conventional airplane from a conventional airstrip using turbo-ramjet engines that burn air and hydrogen. Once at a cruising altitude, the vehicle would use scramjet propulsion to accelerate from Mach 4 to Mach 8. During this cruising phase, an on-board system would collect air from the atmosphere, from which liquid oxygen would be separated and stored. The liquid oxygen collected then would be used in the final flight phase when the rocket engine burns the collected liquid oxygen and the carried hydrogen to attain orbit. The vehicle would be designed to permit at least a hundred re-entries into the atmosphere.

Dr. M R Suresh, a senior ISRO official, stated that, “The dream of making a vehicle which can take off from a runway like an aircraft, and to return to the runway after deploying the spacecraft in the desired orbit (or Single-stage-to-orbit or SSTO) can be fulfilled only by the availability of more advanced high strength but low density materials so that the structural mass of the vehicle could be reduced considerably from the present levels. The advent of nano-technology could play a deciding factor in developing such exotic materials. However, the material technology available today can realize a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) vehicle only and the configuration of the vehicle which is being considered. However, the before realizing the RLV-TSTO it is important to perfect many critical technologies pertaining to hypersonic reentry vehicles. Hence a technology demonstrator vehicle (RLV-TD) is being developed.”

Development

A model of the RLV-TD

AVATAR is being developed by India’s Defense Research and Development Organization. Air Commodore Raghavan Gopalaswami, former chief of Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Hyderabad, is heading the project. He coined the name and made the presentation on the space plane at the global conference on propulsion at Salt Lake City (USA) on July 10, 2001. Gopalaswami said the idea for AVATAR originated from the work published by the RAND Corporation of the United States in 1987.

AVATAR is currently in the prototype testing stage and an initial development budget of only $5 million is allocated. Along with DRDO team development of critical technology components were undertaken by as many as 23 academic institutions (Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institute of Science et al.) along with ISRO in India. Both the scramjet engine concept and the liquid oxygen collection process have already undergone successful tests at DRDO and at the IISC. DRDO has approved further testing of the liquid oxygen process and assigned a team to conduct a detailed review of the vehicle’s design.

Currently DRDO plans to build and fly a scaled-down version of AVATAR, weighing just 3 tonnes at takeoff. The project is headed byVikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram. The mini AVATAR is to be built by a Hyderabad-based private company called CIM Technologies, project completion data is still not finalized. The prototype will be launched using the PSLV and will demonstrate all technologies used in AVATAR including oxygen collection. The aerodynamics characterization of the RLV-TD was done by National Aerospace Laboratories. The AVATAR design has already been patented in India and applications for registration of the design have been filed in patent offices in the United States, Germany, Russia and China.

Overview

The KALI is not a laser weapon as commonly believed. It emits powerful pulses of electrons (Relativistic Electron Beams- REB). Other components in the machine down the line convert the electron energy into EM Radiation, which can be adjusted to x-ray (as Flash X-Rays) or microwave (High Power Microwave) frequencies.

This has fueled hopes that the KALI could, one day be used in a High-Power Microwave gun, which could destroy incoming missiles and aircraft through soft-kill (destroying the electronic circuitry on the missile). However, weaponising such a system has many obstacles to overcome.

History

The KALI project was first mooted in 1985 by the then Director of the BARC, Dr. R. Chidambaram. Work on the Project began in 1989, being developed by the Accelerators & Pulse Power Division of the BARC. (Dr. Chidambaram was also the Scientific advisor the Prime Minister, and the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission). DRDO is also involved with this project. It was initially developed for industrial applications, although defence applications became clearer later.

The first accelerators had a power of ~0.4GW, which increased as later versions were developed. These were the KALI 80, KALI 200, KALI 1000, KALI 5000 and KALI 10000.

The KALI-5000 was commissioned for use in late 2004.

Design

The KALI series (KALI 80, KALI 200, KALI 1000, KALI 5000 and KALI 10000) of accelerators are described as “Single Shot Pulsed Gigawatt Electron Accelerators”. They are single shot devices, using water filled capacitors to build the charge energy. The discharge is in the range of 1GW. Initially starting with 0.4GW power, present accelerators are able to reach 40GW. Pulse time is about 60 ns.

The Microwave radiations emitted by the KALI-5000 are in the 3–5 GHz Range

The KALI-5000 is a pulsed accelerator of 1 MeV electron energy, 50-100 ns pulse time, 40kA Current and 40 GW Power level. The system is quite bulky as well, with the KALI-5000 weighing 10 tons, and the KALI-10000, weighing 26 tons. They are also very power hungry, and require a cooling tank of 12,000 liters of oil. Recharging time is also too long to make it a viable weapon in its present form.

Applications

The KALI has been put to various uses by the DRDO. The DRDO was involved in configuring the KALI for their use.

The X-rays emitted are being used in Ballistics research as an illuminator for ultrahigh speed photography by the Defence Ballistics Research Institute (DBRL) in Chandigarh. The Microwave emissions are used for EM Research.

The microwave-producing version of Kali has also been used by the DRDO scientists for testing the vulnerability of the electronic systems of the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), which was then under development.

It has also helped in designing electrostatic shields to “harden” the LCA and missiles from microwave attack by the enemy as well as protecting satellites against deadly Electromagnetic Impulses (EMI) generated by nuclear weapons and other cosmic disturbances, which “fry” and destroy electronic circuits. Electronic components currently used in missiles can withstand fields of approx. 300 V/cm, while the fields in case of EMI attack reach thousands of V/cm.

As a Weapon

The KALI’s potential for a military role as a beam weapon has made it, in the eyes of China a threat. However, weaponisation of the KALI will take some time. The system is still under development, and efforts are being made to make it more compact, as well as improve its recharge time, which, at the present, makes it only a single use system.

There are also issues with creating a complete system, which would require development of many more components. There have been reports of placing the weaponized KALI in an Il-76 aircraft as an airborne defence system. There is also speculation of using the KALI as an Anti-satellite weapon and as a space-based weapon system, although it is unlikely that they would be implemented, given India’s stance on those issues.

BrahMos (Hindi:ब्रह्मोस, Russian: Брамос) is a stealth supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between Republic of India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russian Federation’s NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.
It is expected to be the world’s fastest cruise missile in operation. The missile travels at speeds of Mach 2.8 to 3.0. An Air launched variant of Brahmos is planned which is expected to come out in 2012 and will make India the only country with supersonic cruise missiles in their army, navy, and air force. A hypersonic version of the missile is also presently under development with speed of Mach 7 to boost aerial fast strike capability. It is expected to be ready for testing by 2017.
Though India had wanted the BrahMos to be based on a mid range cruise missile like P-700 Granit, Russia opted for the shorter range sister of the missile, P-800 Oniks, in order to comply with Missile Technology Control Regime restrictions, to which Russia is a signatory. Its propulsion is based on the Russian missile, and guidance has been developed by BrahMos Corp. The missile is expected to reach a total order worth of US$13 billion

Variants

BrahMos-1
  • Ship launched, Anti-Ship variant (operational)
  • Ship launched, Land attack variant (operational)
  • Land launched, Land attack variant (operational)
  • Land launched, Anti-Ship variant (In induction, tested December 10, 2010)
  • Air launched, Anti-Ship variant (under development, expected completion 2012)
  • Air launched, Land attack variant (under development, expected completion 2012)
  • Submarine launched, Anti-Ship variant (under development, expected completion 2011)
  • Submarine launched, Land attack variant (under development, expected completion 2011)
  • BrahMos block II land variant (Operational)
  • Brahmos block III land variant (Being inducted)
Other models
  • BrahMos-2 – scramjet-propelled, hypersonic version. This version will fly at speeds from 5-7 Mach and would be ready for test flight in 2017.
  • BrahMos-3 – a lighter version of the Brahmos-1 with thinner diameter for medium weight fighters such as the MiG-29K and the MMRCA.

Description

BrahMos claims to have the capability of attacking surface targets by flying as low as 10 metres in altitude. It can gain a speed of Mach 2.8, and has a maximum range of 290 km. The ship-launched and land-based missiles can carry a 200 kg warhead, whereas the aircraft-launched variant (BrahMos A) can carry a 300 kg warhead. It has a two-stage propulsion system, with a solid-propellant rocket for initial acceleration and a liquid-fueled ramjet responsible for sustained supersonic cruise. Air-breathing ramjet propulsion is much more fuel-efficient than rocket propulsion, giving the BrahMos a longer range than a pure rocket-powered missile would achieve.

The high speed of the BrahMos likely gives it better target-penetration characteristics than lighter subsonic cruise-missiles such as the Tomahawk. Being twice as heavy and almost four times faster than the Tomahawk, the BrahMos has almost 32 times the initial kinetic energy of a Tomahawk missile (although it pays for this by having only 3/5 the payload and a fraction of the range despite weighing twice as much, suggesting a different tactical paradigm to achieve the objective). Its 2.8 mach speed means that it cannot be intercepted by some existing missile defence system and its precision makes it lethal to water targets.

Although BrahMos was primarily an anti-ship missile, the Brahmos Block III can also engage land based targets. It can be launched either in a vertical or inclined position and is capable of covering targets over a 360 degree horizon. The BrahMos missile has an identical configuration for land, sea, and sub-sea platforms. The air-launched version has a smaller booster and additional tail fins for added stability during launch. The BrahMos is currently being configured for aerial deployment with the Su-30MKI as its carrier. On September 5, 2010 BrahMos created a record for the first supersonic steep dive.

 

DRDO rather than starting all over again the Arjun Mk.2 will have the same design of Arjun Mk.1, but major changes are planned for the new generation variant of Arjun Tank to keep up with the new technological changes which are been incorporated in the MBT’s world over.

Arjun Mk.2 will have Battle Field Management System (BFMS) which will enable the tank to get feed from UAV‘s and Helicopters, which then enable the Arjun Mk.2 tank crew much aware of their surroundings and better understanding of the battle zone, this will lead to improvement in coordinating with other Friendly tanks in the zone and also avoid Friendly kills, it will also give information regarding enemy tank movement along with their troops and help navigate terrain in the battle zone.

Self-diagnostic system (SDS) will also be added to Arjun Mk.2 which is like a health monitoring system. it will not only tell the tank crew if it is having any problem but also point out the trouble area , it is also important when Tank has taken multiple hits from different position and from different ammunition after a self-diagnose Tank crew will know exact damage inflicted on the Tank .

Arjun Mk.2 will get a new efficient 1500bhp engine which has been in development by DRDO in India its self, they are reports that a Indian Private industry is also working with DRDO on the engine development, currently Arjun Mk.1 is powered by German supplied 1400bhp engine which is quite old in design and technical parameters but still a powerful and respected engine in the world.

NERA (non-explosive reactive armor) will be added to Arjun Mk.2 this will give the tank additional protection against anti-tank munitions, unlike ERA, NERA will enable tank to take multiple hits anti-tank munitions, but also increase the weight of Arjun Mk.2 to 60 tons from its current weight (Arjun Mk.1) of 58 tons.

It is much likely that Arjun Mk.2 will also spot Air-conditioning system for the crew, which will be powered from an APU which will draw its power from the Main engine of the Tank; this will enable the tank crew to operate in higher temperature of desert heat without any discomfort to the tank crew, Arjun Mk.1 already has hardened electronics that function perfectly even in the Rajasthan summer without requiring any Air-conditioning system

The Arjun Mk.2 is to undergo summer and winter trails in 2012. If the tests are satisfactory, then the tank will be able to begin production in 2014.

Specifications:
Weight: 60 tons
Length: 10.638 meters
Width: 3.864 meters
Height: 2.32 meters
Crew: 4 (commander, gunner, loader and driver)

Armor: steel/composite Kanchan armour and NERA
Primary weapon: 120 mm rifled tank gun
Secondary weapon: HCB 12.7 mm AA MG, Mag 7.62 mm Tk715 coaxial MG
Engine: DRDO 1,500hp
Power/weight: 25 hp/ton
Operational range: 435 kilometers
Speed: 75 km/h (45 mph) Road, 42 km/h (25 mph) Cross country

Cost: $13 million est.

FMBT

The Indian Army wants the tank to have an Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system “to obviate chances of own tanks firing at each other in battle”, and a whole new reliable and secure mobile communication system capable of data transmission, audio and video conference. Protection in the form of soft-kill system requires IR detectors, laser warning, radar warning and devices to instantaneously integrate these signals and control a countermeasure suite. Such systems are threat specific so all would have to be carried on a vehicle to gain protection against more than one part of the EM threat spectrum.

For mobility, in order to achieve ‘extraordinary’ acceleration, the Army observes that it is necessary to seek a compact power pack in the form of a gas turbine. The Army wants an active suspension system with sensors, control units, and a hydraulic power source in combination, to automatically alter the suspension characteristics to more closely match the speed of the vehicle and the terrain profile, especially in Indian terrain conditions.

The Army says it wants a high-performance armour system on its FMBT with advanced materials incorporating the following qualities A. Reduced penetration by most lethal weapons, B. Elimination of parasitic mass leading to a weight reduction, C. Excellent corrosion resistance, D. Inherent thermal and acoustic insulation properties.